CRYOGUY Education in Cryogenics
Guy GISTAU BAGUER's CV and background
Guy Gistau Baguer
Born: 22 June 1940 at Génos, France.
Married to Anna, no child.

Graduated from the French “École Nationale Supérieure des Arts et Métiers“.
Professional career
2000 – Present
Education in “Basics in Cryogenics” and “Helium Refrigeration”, more specially dedicated to the helium refrigeration and liquefaction activity. (80 sessions as of April 2024).
International cryogenic consultant/adviser.

1975 – 2000 (retirement)
In charge of the helium refrigeration activity at Air Liquide, in the Sassenage (France) premises.
Design and development of the first automatic helium refrigerator/liquefier: HELIAL (1980).
Design, building and start-up of various plants; among them:
  • Tore Supra refrigerator: 300 W at 1.8 K integrating for the first time cryogenic centrifugal compressors,
  • Participation to the CEBAF refrigerator (5 kW at 2.0 K, design and start up of the centrifugal cryogenic compressor train),
  • CERN 6 kW at 4.5 K refrigerator,
  • CERN LEP 12/18 kW at 4.5 K refrigerator,
  • CERN LHC 18 kW at 4.5 K and 2.4 kW at 1.8 K refrigerator.

1972 – 1975
Adviser for sales activity in specialty gases and helium for the company subsidiaries at Air Liquide head office, Paris.

1969 – 1972
Sales activity in specialty gases and helium at Air Liquide in Le Plessis Robinson (France).

1966 – 1969
Operation of an air separation plant, cylinder gas conditioning and distribution truck fleet at Air Liquide in Le Blanc Mesnil (France).

1965 – 1966
Building small helium liquefiers (with JT expansion only, no turbine) at Air Liquide in the Sassenage (France) workshops.
Other activities
Expert in Cryogenics at the European Community.
Former member of:
• the International Cryogenic Engineering Committee (ICEC) (1984 – 2008), and former Chairman (1998 – 2008)
• the Board of the International Cryogenic Engineering Material.
• the A1/2 commission of the International Institute of Refrigeration (IIR)
• the Board of the "Association Française du Froid, Commission Cryogénie et Supraconductivité".
Former advisor editor for the "Cryogenics" journal.
Author for "Les techniques de l'ingénieur", France.
9 patents in the field of helium refrigeration, among them:
US5205134 (A) - Gas liquefaction process and refrigeration plant. 1993-04-27. This patent is related to the cold end of large helium refrigerators operating mainly in a refrigerator regime. It allows reducing the cold end mass flow rate and therefore reaching high cycle effectiveness.
US6170290 (B1) - Refrigeration process and plant using a thermal cycle of a fluid having a low boiling point. 2001-01-09. This patent is related to the cold end of large helium refrigerators operating mainly in the liquefier regime. It allows reducing the cold end mass flow rate and therefore reaching high cycle effectiveness.
DE60319699 (T2) - Method and installation for controlling at least one cryogenic centrifugal compressor, compression line. 2009-03-26. This patent is related to cryogenic centrifugal compression. It describes a control procedure for cool down and steady state operation.
US5941095 (A) - Process for the compression of a gas at low temperature and low pressure, and corresponding compression line and refrigeration installation. 1999-08-24. This patent is related to pure cryogenic centrifugal compression (no volumetric compressor downstream of the centrifugal machines). It describes an arrangement that allows processing less than half the nominal mass flow rate at same total compression ratio without hitting the surge line.
A book: Cryogenic Helium Refrigeration for Middle and Large Powers.
This unique book tries to concentrate in a one-off document, almost anything one needs to know in order to deal with helium refrigeration. It is a very pragmatic tool.
It is split in various chapters, the first one dealing with theory of cycles. Prior to get into the topic, short refreshers about cryogenic and heat exchangers are given.
The basic cycles are considered: Joule Thomson, Brayton, Claude. They are calculated and discussed using the REFPROP® software by NIST with Excel®.
They are followed by special cycles for high powers or temperatures colder than4.5 K. Some examples of possible connections between cold box and cryostat are introduced.
The technology chapter takes care of compression with oil lubricated screw compressors and the necessary oil management system, heat exchange, cryogenic expansion and cryogenic compression.
Examples of typical refrigeration systems are presented and discussed.
Prior to deal with system control, a glance is given at the behaviour of a refrigerator in off-design operation.
Helium purification both by adsorption and cryo-freezing is discussed, followed by basic heli-um analysis.
In the everyday life of the plant, the operator has to deal with the important topics that are op-eration and maintenance. Some advices are given about points not to be forgotten in writing a request for quotation and how to perform accurate commissioning tests.
The Cryogenic Tool Box explains how to perform a set of typical thermodynamic calculations with REFPROP® and Excel® like heat exchangers or expansion turbines that are very useful in an operator’s everyday life.
Finally, a quick trip through the “saga” of refrigeration is performed.
Thanks to Springer, the book is colour printed, which makes it rather attractive.
I hope this book will be useful for the world cryogenic community.
Cryogenic Helium Refrigeration for Middle and Large Powers is available at Springer Nature at:

52 papers given in domestic and international conferences. Among them:
Helium refrigeration (Mendelssohn Award talk), ICEC 28, Hangzhou, 2022,
How to efficiently control the power of a tokamak cryogenic system. ICEC 23, Wroclaw, 2010,
Various ways to smooth energy pulses into the cryogenic system of a tokamak. ICEC 23, Wroclaw, 2010,
High power refrigeration at temperatures around 2.0 K. ICEC 16, 1996,
Two large 18 kW (equivalent power at 4.5 K) helium refrigerators for CERN's LHC project, supplied by Air Liquide, CEC, 1999,
A 12/18 kW at4.5 K helium refrigerator for CERN's LEP superconducting accelerating cavities. ICEC 15, 1994,
Design of a large 2.0 K refrigerator for CEBAF. Supercollider 3, 1991,
Design of the cryogenic system for the Tore Supra tokamak. Cryogenics, volume 26, 1986.

11 publications in various technical magazines.

"Almost fifty years of cryogenics",
in Cold Facts, April 2014, Volume 30, number 2.
Almost fifty years of cryogenics Download Almost fifty years of cryogenics

In the French “Techniques de l’Ingénieur”:
Épuration et liquéfaction de l'hélium, J 3 605, 2009,
Liquéfaction de l'hélium et réfrigération à l'hélium de moyennes et fortes puissance, BE 9 816, 2012.
The 2007 "Charles TELLIER" medal from the "Association Française du Froid".

The 2020 international "Mendelssohn Award" from the International Cryogenic Engineering Committee.